A 2014 case study describes an animal caretaker who had an allergic reaction after being bitten by a lab mouse. Mol Metab. for handling animals dosed with these hazardous materials. Allergens: Laboratory animal allergies and associated asthma are among the most common conditions affecting individuals who work with laboratory animals. Muller P, Schneeberger M, Matheis F, Wang P, Kerner Z, Ilanges A. Cloutier S, Panksepp J, Newberry RC. Research has shown that picking up mice by the tail induces aversion and high anxiety levels, as assessed by a … Human-based conditioning that was first described by Pavlov and by Gantt, Newton, Royer, and Stephens (1966), may also have important implications for animal research in a variety of settings. Handling and Restraint Mice are generally easy to restrain, but their small size makes them especially vulnerable to physical injury, not least by the handler inadvertently dropping them when bitten. The first method the authors described involves a cage tunnel that is normally present in all cages. The researchers also concluded that when a strong anxiety response is required for specific experiments, the cage tunnel and "cupped" on open methods are not recommended. In Another study, gentle handling reduced the swimming immobility in the FST compared to mice that were aggressively or minimally handled, and suggest that gentle handling can reduce the stress and despair in the animals [21]. 2009;88:184-202, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Materials and Methods [ISSN : 2329-5139] is a unique online journal with regularly updated review articles on laboratory materials and methods. These observations also point to the need to standardize the handling procedures in order to reduce the depressive symptoms in mice. While several guidelines regarding lighting, smells, and noises, are well established in animal protocols, less emphasis has been directed towards establishing consistent handling methods of animals by animal handlers. Faraco G, Hochrainer K, Segarra S, Schaeffer S, Santisteban M, Menon A, Kalovyrna N, Apokotou O, Boulekou S, Paouri E, Boutou A, Georgopoulos S. A 3'UTR modification of the TNF-α mouse gene increases peripheral TNF-α and modulates the Alzheimer-like phenotype in 5XFAD mice. The instructor-led Mouse Handling course is available upon request. Mice that aren’t used to being handled are easily stressed, which … Researchers should always follow institutional guidelines for example, the US National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th edition) or ARRIVE [2] or European Communities Council Directive (86/609/EEC) [3], in conducting experiments with animals, and seek approval from local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, especially in cases where care and handling of animals deviate from standard practices. Diabetes 33: 616-18 [PMID: 6376217]). Researchers have also tried to control the stress variation through other means. Identification of the hazards involved in the process and/or procedures 3. Typically, allergies to animals result from repeated exposure to an animal’s dander, urine, saliva, serum, or other body tissues. mice and rats used for research today are often described as very adaptable and “tame” (Latham & Mason, 2004). The researchers showed different advantages in using these new methods. Familiarity increases consistency in animal tests. Mice that aren’t used to being handled are easily stressed, which can lead to injury to you — ouch! The need to handle laboratory mice and rats regularly is unavoidable; it is necessary when moving them between home cages and testing areas, during experimental procedures and in routine care such as cage cleaning and supervision, making it an essential part of their lives (Bateson, 2014). FEBS Lett. Davis H, Taylor AA, Norris C. Preference for familiar humans by rats. The historic struggle against pathogens of laboratory rodents is often divided into three periods. Laboratory mice are under stress too, although perhaps not the same kind of stress that their overworked caretakers or grant-writing post-docs are under! These observations suggest that habituating mice to handling by either the cupping or tunnel method minimizes handling-related stress. Laboratory mice are routinely handled for husbandry and scientific procedures. We found that picking up mice by the tail induced aversion and high anxiety, whereas use of tunnels or open hand led to voluntary approach, low anxi … The Laboratory Mouse, Second Edition is a comprehensive book written by international experts. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Behav Brain Res. A standardized tickling protocol has been published [18]. 43: 42-51 [PMID: 15669134;"]). In a study that investigated the effect of identity of the experimenter and familiarity to their test animals on the results obtained from a standard test of anxiety, the authors found that having different experimenters perform the same test (i.e. In a paper published late last year in Nature Methods, Jane Hurst and Rebecca West at the University of Liverpool report that how mice are handled can affect their fear and anxiety responses (Hurst JL, West RS. The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) deliberately breeds mice to be genetically predisposed to have debilitating ailments—including cancerous tumors, obesity, paralysis, a depressed immune system, and high levels of anxiety and depression. 304 Old Main. Thus, carrying mice in tunnels or "cupping" in hand are important alternative handling methods that may reduce the intra-experimental variability which is of critical importance since it will help reduce experimental variability and reproducibility [22]. The laboratory equipment and facility 5. Experimenter sex can, therefore, affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing. Pregnant mice, mice giving birth, wild-derived strains and mice with new litters should be handled as little as possible. The importance of laboratory mice in experimental microbiology and biomedical research is indisputable, and their care and handling is a contributing factor to the quality of the science resulting from their use. In this video, we will first review the basic techniques for handling rodents, and then we'll discuss the rodent restraint procedures including manual techniques and methods involving usage of … 2005;289:R1244-52, Feldmann H, Golozoubova V, Cannon B, Nedergaard J. UCP1 ablation induces obesity and abolishes diet-induced thermogenesis in mice exempt from thermal stress by living at thermoneutrality. This immobile behavior is thought to indicates a state of despair in which the rat has learned that escape is impossible and resigns itself to the experimental conditions. Postbacc, Ph.D., and Postdoctoral Programs, heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels, decreases plasma insulin and increases plasma glucose levels, Revealing treatment options with category variants, JAX Diversity Outbred Mice: A Genetically Diverse Mouse for a Diverse Human Population, How to address secondary findings from genomic testing, Updates in BRCA testing for People of Ashkenazi Jewish Ancestry, Workshop on Surgical Techniques in the Laboratory Mouse, Making and Genetically Manipulating Mouse Embryos. Thus far, animal handlers were unaware that the standard procedure of handling mice could affect the results of their experiments, and that picking up the mice from the tail-tip, for example, could generate anxiety and stress in the mice. For certain experiments, like those that assess mouse behavior, mice must first become accustomed to being handled by humans. All laboratories should perform a site-specific and activity-specific risk assessment to identify and mitigate risks. Playful handling by caretakers reduces the fear of humans in the laboratory rat. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. The authors found that rats responded well to both restraint and passive exposure treatments, and responded best to daily tickling. The laboratory mouse has unique thermoregulatory characteristics, and it is marked by differences in metabolic rate, thermal conductance, variable core temperature, and preference for warm temperatures. 2018;7:161-170, Rudaya A, Steiner A, Robbins J, Dragic A, Romanovsky A. Thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in the mouse: dependence on the dose and ambient temperature. Used to deliver personalized information and tailor communications. The competency level of the personnel who perform the procedures 4. Mice and Rats: Housing Temperature and Handling, Synatom Research, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, last modified : 2020-10-17; original version : 2011-01-01, Handling effects on depressive-like behavior, Neely C, Lane C, Torres J, Flinn J. Mice in general are maintained on 12 h light:dark cycles, for example, lights on from 6 am to 6pm [4] or 7 am to 7 pm [5]. Thus, the thermal physiology of mice presents unique challenges to the biomedical researcher because changes in temperature can affect the interpretation and translation of data to humans. For example, if blood will be drawn from or something will be injected into the mice, simulate those procedures as part of the habituation routine. 2004. So, what can we do to limit the effects of stress on mice and experimental results? However, despite clear negative effects on mice's behaviour, tunnel … Handling and Restraint Rats are typically docile animals, particularly if they are routinely handled using appropriate techniques. There are different methods for restraining mice, depending on the purpose of the experiment. National Research Council (US) Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Nevertheless, this interesting study emphasizes that habituation can minimize handling stress in mice and that mice should be handled as consistently as possible to minimize stress and its effects on experimental variability. In a study by Jane Hurst and Rebecca West from the Institute of Integrative Biology (University of Liverpool, UK), the authors identified two alternative methods to tail handling; the use of tunnels, and open-hand handling. Thus, the familiarity of the test animals with their experimenters is anticipated to increase the reproducibility in the results with animal tests and should be taken into consideration when planning behavioral studies in animals. An adult rat is more than 10 times larger than a mouse. For example, some strains breed better when fed a diet containing Temperature regulation specifically affects autonomic and behavioral effectors, including pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs and other chemicals. Handling mice is an unavoidable part of an animal caretaker’s routine, and the stress this causes to laboratory mice is an often overlooked factor that may affect experimental outcomes. 411 Mice Handling jobs available on Indeed.com. The handler wore a laboratory coat that was contaminated with mouse scent from previous handling sessions and clean close fit nitrile gloves that were rubbed in soiled bedding (from animals of same sex and strain) prior to the start of each handling session and whenever handling mice of the opposite sex. Furthermore, this preference was retained in the absence of additional contact for at least five months [25]. (If you have the required subscription, check out the supporting online movies at the Nature Methods website.) Common laboratory mouse strains are known to differ in their susceptibility to anxiety and neophobic responses. In studies that examined the effects of different handling techniques on depressive-like behavior, the benefits of gentle handling were established. These factors set mice apart from humans in the extrapolation of biomedical data. 411 Mice Handling jobs available on Indeed.com. More gentle handlings reduced aversion and high anxiety and led to a voluntary approach, low anxiety, and acceptance of physical restraints. Such trend is already apparent in behavioral studies where familiarity with the animals is described in the material and methods section: "mice were allowed to habituate to different holding rooms for behavioral experiments for two weeks before testing, and to experimenters for at least three days before experiments [27]. The experiment described in the study involved researchers that handled the mice in a gentle, aggressive, or minimal (control) fashion over approximately two weeks prior to testing. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice . In general, the housing temperature for laboratory mice in research facilities is between 20–26 °C [6, 7] or 18–23 °C [8] ; while the thermoneutral ambient temperature for mice is 30–31°C. "Tail handling … A summary and overview of the mice and rats used in biomedical research, based on a survey of formal publications. Behav Neurol. Email: osvpr@psu.edu. The article was extensively re-written and updated by Dr. Goldi Kozloski in July 2019. Traditionally, laboratory mice have been picked up by the base of the tail. Routine laboratory animal handling has profound effects on their anxiety and stress responses, but little is known about the impact of handling method. Environmental factors play a significant role in the well-being of laboratory animals and affect the consistency of study results. J Vis Exp. Using methods that minimize anxiety also reduces confounding factors, improves the responses during experiments, and lead to more robust scientific outcomes. The guidelines are based on extensive laboratory experience with the other hantaviruses -- particularly work involving the use of permissive host animal species -- and on the limited experience with a hantavirus recently isolated from deer mice. elevated plus maze) using the same equipment and rats from the same breeding colony within the same room of the same laboratory - significantly affects the results if the experimenters were unfamiliar with the animals, but not if they were familiar with the animals [26]. The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. Minimize odors: Perfumes and other strong odors can reduce breeding performance and induce stress. These studies and others have helped increase the awareness for experimenter gender considerations, and in behavioral studies it is becoming more common to encounter a specific mention about the experimenter gender in the Materials and Methods section as in the following study under the Behavioral Experiment section: "Behavioral experiments were performed on 3- to 9-month-old male mice by a male experimenter, except for the Barnes maze, where a male experimenter performed intraperitoneal injections, and a female experimenter performed the experiments" [27]. Tuganbaev T, Mor U, Bashiardes S, Liwinski T, Nobs S, Leshem A. Badimon A, Strasburger H, Ayata P, Chen X, Nair A, Ikegami A. Understanding proper laboratory behavior while handling mice. Picking up the mice by the tail is routinely used in the laboratory. With inclusions of the newly revised European standards on laboratory animals, this will be the most current, global authority on the care of mice in laboratory research. A short video demonstrating humane restraint techniques in laboratory mice. In a 2012 article titled "Playful handling by caretakers reduces fear of humans in the laboratory rat" [17], the authors tested four scenarios regarding rat handling, including (1) minimal handling; (2) daily exposure to a passive hand for 2 min; (3) daily tickling for 2 min; and (4) daily hand restraint for 2 min (similar to pinning by a dominant rat). His lab members routinely clutch mice by the tail, even though they investigate the effect of stress on anxiety, depression and addiction. Handling and Restraint of Mice. 1997;4:118-20. In one study that utilized the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) in adult C57BL/6J male mice, the authors established the importance of consistent gentle handling in order to achieve less challenging behavioral testing, better data collection, and overall improved animal welfare [1]. Report a Research Concern. Handling and Restraint of Small Laboratory Animals ... Mice. 2009;9:203-9. University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. Rest the animal on one’s forearm to transport it short distances. Course duration estimate: 3 hours. This video tutorial was produced to show technical staff and researchers how to handle mice using non-aversive methods. Indeed, stress has been shown to significantly affect heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels in laboratory mice (for a review, see Balcombe JP et al. These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered and that it is important to … Prog Neurobiol. Sci Rep. 2020;10:8670. This review aims to introduce examples of animal handlings that are often overlooked, and increase the awareness in establishing consistent handling methods, especially in behavioral studies. Handling of laboratory mice is essential for experiments and husbandry, but handling can increase anxiety in mice, compromising their welfare and … The way of handling laboratory mice is of critical importance since it can have negative effects on the mice behavior, and induce fear, anxiety responses , and anhedonia - a core symptom of clinical depression which can be measured in rodents by assessing how they consume a sucrose solution . Being bitten by a lab mouse: laboratory animal allergies and associated are. Should be worn while working with mice animal is stressed or in pain the historic struggle pathogens. ; 2011 did not alter their willingness to interact with the animal handlers increases reproducibility animal! 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