These depths (Z) represent seismic horizons and the formation tops (unconformities) mapped within the Orange Basin chronological framework which are marked from SQ7-SQ1 for the current study (Fig. Note seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Sub-parallel (SF5). J Geophys Res 25:829–853, Bradley DC (2008) Passive margins through earth history. The fluvio-deltaic sandstone channels of the Albian age close to well A1 which is laterally extensive from L2 towards well A2 could also be a potential reservoir target. Note seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Hummocky (SF2), Sub-parallel/Parallel (SF5) and Chaotic (SF4). 8a). J Petrol Explor Prod Technol (2020). 3• Exercise 2- Seismic Sequence Analysis: sequence stratigraphy of a seismic line across the lower Cretaceous, offshore of South Africa. 6c). Delta distributary channels are not unexpected as the period was characterised by delta progradation due to a regional flooding unconformity (Brown et al., 1996). A cross section of the seismic lines (L1, L2 and L3)) and lithofacies integration showing lithology distribution across the study area. 1), preserves a remarkably complete sedimentary record because the depositional system was seldom affected by tectonic forces, apart from gravity flow (Rebesco et al. And 3) optical stacking, which can highlight stratigraphic features that are not readily apparent on stratal slices. The serration of logs is a common occurrence in the shelf margin. The GR log displays a blocky aggradational pattern in the northern part typical of massive shale and silt deposits evident between 1600 and 2000 m (Fig. This 5-day interactive Stratigraphy training course will deal with the fundamentals and practical applications of sequence and seismic stratigraphy. Note seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Hummocky (SF2), Divergent (SF6) and Chaotic (SF4). 2010), further exploration is essential in northern Orange Basin for the delineation of potential reservoirs for a drilling programme. 1996). The TWT for the entire sequence ranges between 0.9 and 1.4 s (N–S). 9c). In both cases, the reservoir quality is controlled by a multi-phase diagenesis (Levell et al. Abstract. Deposition of incised valley fill is often influenced by strong hydrodynamic conditions, which could transport massive sedimentary units into the basin (Zhu et al. A Assoc Pet Geol Memoir 26:165–184, Sangree JB, Widmier JM (1979) Interpretation of depositional facies from seismic data. The post-rift evolution of the Orange Basin has been well studied with the sedimentary evolution classified into three main stages in the Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous and the Cenozoic eras (Emery et al. 11). a–c Turonian seismic facies configurations and calibrated gamma-ray log with the lithology interpretations at well positions along the N-S profile. Chris Adesola Samakinde. Dr. Posamentier has published widely with research interests in the fields of sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems analysis. ISBN 978-953-51-3675-0, eISBN 978-953-51-3676-7, PDF ISBN 978-953-51-4587-5, Published 2017-12-06 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-020-01050-9, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-020-01050-9, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 9) in this sequence which occurred during the short marine regression. (2020)Cite this article. Pearsons Ltd, Mann P, Gahagan L, Gordon MB (2003) Tectonic setting of the world’s giant oil and gas fields. The divergent clinoforms in the Albian sequences point to lateral variations in the rates of deposition, which cause thickening of the individual reflection units inward of the basin (progradation). The Cenomanian era (SQ4), which marked the start of the Upper Cretaceous, is characterised by sub-parallel clinoforms (SF5; Fig. & Pickering, S. C. (eds)Petroleum Geology: From Mature Basins to New Frontiers– Proceedings of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference. S Africa J Geol 114:433–448, Fatti JL, Smith GC, Vail PJ, Strauss PJ, Levitt PR (1994) Detection of gas in sandstone reservoirs using AVO analysis: a 3D seismic case history using the Geostack technique. It also provides insight into palaeo-environmental conditions that accompanied sedimentary evolution in a passive margin setting like the Orange Basin. J Marine Geol 393:1–3, Samakinde C, Opuwari M, Van Bever Donker M (2016) The effects of clay diagenesis on petrophysical properties of the lower Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs Orange Basin South Africa. Principles and workflows of seismic stratigraphy and seismic geomorphology will be discussed and numerous examples will be shown from a variety of different depositional settings. (2010) are suggested to be an incised valley accompanied by strong hydrodynamic conditions. A further proof of this is seen in the northern part of our study area because of the serration of gamma-ray log seen in well A1 (Figs. a–b (a) The localised chronostratigraphy of the Orange Basin (within study area) detailing the major sequences mapped (SQ7-SQ1) for this study and the events that characterised the evolution of the Western Margin. Serration of the GR log as observed in the northern and southern part may be attributed to storms and waves dominance which accompanied the deposition of the sediments on the shelf. J Marine Pet Geol 27:223–237, Dingle RV, Hendey QB (1984) Late Mesozoic and tertiary sediment supply to the Eastern Cape Basin (SE Atlantic) and paleo-drainage systems in south-western Africa. The modern passive margins generally have a mean age of 104 Ma and are a host to 35% of global giant oil discoveries (Bradley 2008; Mann et al. Finally, these analyses are aided by the interpretation of gamma-ray log signatures, in addition to lithology cross section, to understand the sedimentary distribution and palaeo-environments of the deposits encountered in the study area. The Cenomanian (SQ4) sequence displays low–medium-amplitude and sub-parallel clinoforms (SF5) in the northern, central and southern part of the study area (Fig. Course Description. In: Cameron NR, Bate RH, Clure VS (eds) The oil and gas habitats of the South Atlantic. This was done in order to compare interpretations of depositional environments made from both the seismic-and well data. As passive margin terrains are structurally less complex than active tectonic regimes, they preserve sedimentary records which can easily be investigated. The unique properties of seismic reflections allow the direct application of geologic concepts based on physical stratigraphy. The high run-off effect could possibly have led to the deposition of sedimentary facies characterised by the chaotic pattern (SF4) of the V-shaped incised valley reflectors seen within the Barremian-Aptian sequence ( Fig. In recent years, 3D seismic has become an essential tool for the interpretation of subsurface stratigraphy and depositional systems. On the left are the conceptual representations of the seismic facies. Before Chevron, Dr. Posamentier served as Chief Geologist with Anadarko Petroleum and was a senior exploration and research advisor with ARCO and earlier with Exxon production Research Company. Petroleum Agency South Africa Report 2006, Petroleum exploration information and opportunities: Petroleum Agency Brochure, 32 p. Rebesco M, Mosher D, Piper DJW (2017) Advancements in understanding deep-sea clastic sedimentation processes: a preface. Typically, a potential stratigraphic reservoir is expected to be bounded at the top and bottom by an impermeable lithology, which often is shale or a calcareous siltstone. A seismic stratigraphic workflow (seismic sequence, seismic facies and lithofacies analysis) was completed by utilising three seismic lines (L1, L2 and L3) tied to Wireline data (gamma, checkshots and sonic) in two exploration wells (A1 and A2). The seismic facies mapped in this sequence are Tangential oblique (SF1), Hummocky (SF2), Wavy-parallel (SF3) and Chaotic (SF4). Abstract. The Barremian-Cenozoic depositional sequences in the northern Orange Basin, SW, South Africa, were investigated using the principles of seismic stratigraphy to understand the interplay of tectonics and sedimentary processes in the distribution of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. The interpretative methods of Vail 1987, Sangree and Widmier 1979 and Badley (1985) (Table 2) were applied in this study. 2). The SF4 suggests dominance of a high-energy environment accompanied by mass transport of sediments, while the SF2 represents strata forming as small lobes in a pro-deltaic environments. Showing the World Henry W. Posamentier is a worldwide consultant in seismic and sequence stratigraphy with a focus on lithofacies prediction risk issues. The lithology log was created using a value discriminant where GR values less than 60 API are classified as sandstone, GR values between 60 and 100 API are classified as siltstone, while GR values greater 100 API are classified as shale. The School of Geosciences at the University of the Witwatersrand and the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of the Western Cape are equally thanked for their institutional support. Figure 13 shows the chronostratigraphic correlation of the two wells used for the study showing the various sequences (SQ1–SQ7) investigated. The overall objective is to present seismic interpretation methods and workflows for reducing risk with regard to prediction of lithology, reservoir compartmentalization, and stratigraphic trapping potential in exploration and production. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology 10), indicating a subsiding shelf environment, possibly due to the Late Cretaceous margin uplift followed by subsidence during this period, as documented by Guiraud and Bosworth (1997). J Sediment Res 82:723–746. 2012). A (North), B (Central) and C (South). A. In these instances this workflow is useful for subsequent proportional slicing, for removing velocity-related seismic artifacts such as pull-up, and for correcting the effects of differential compaction, resulting in effective restoration of original stratigraphic architecture. 6 and 7). Wednesday, March 10th, 2021 – 12:00 PM MST WEBINAR. In summary, the seismic facies encountered within this sequence are sub-parallel (SF5), divergent (SF6), hummocky (SF2) and chaotic (SF4) clinoforms. In conclusion, the integration of seismic and lithofacies analyses delineated some reservoir prospects (Albian and Barremian-Aptian), particularly in the northern section of the current study area. In addition, the serration observed on gamma-ray logs within the Albian and Cenomanian sequences is an indication of sediment deposition on the shelf, which is easily affected by storm and waves, which caused the ‘saw-teeth’-like effect seen on the logs. The deposit is laterally extensive within the 2.2 s TWT and bounded unconformably by shale at the top and bottom as seen close to well A1. 5c). The gamma log signature in well A1 is serrated (Fig. 4). A potential reservoir is identified around 2.2 s and trace 494–285 on L1 within the SQ7 (Barremian-Aptian sequence) (Fig. Sangree and Widmier 1979; Badley 1985). 2000). On the left are the conceptual representations of the seismic facies. The horizontal length of each seismic section is 2Km. Application of seismic stratigraphy in reservoir characterisation: a case study of the passive margin deposits of the northern Orange Basin, South Africa, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-020-01050-9. This indicates a thin sandstone deposit with a very low GR value suggesting a coarse-grained sand deposit at a depth of around 3350 m in the northern part, followed by the deposition of massive shale deposits at around 3000 m (Fig. The horizontal length of each seismic section is 4 km. The Orange Basin situated on the passive western margin of South Africa (Fig. whether the fill is sand or shale prone Application of seismic geomorphol ogy and stratigraphy of depositional elements in de ep-water settin gs, detailed seismic interpretati on and analysis of key 2• Exercise 1- Tying a Well Synthetic to a Seismic Line: a seismic cross-section through Little Knife Field tied to a synthetic seismic trace made from a velocity log (Williston B asin). 1996). 5a). 2003) and often exhibit similarity in structural styles and sedimentary patterns particularly in conjugate basins. 7a) which changes into high amplitude and divergent clinoforms (SF6) in the central part (Fig. The GR log signature alludes to this fact because of the fining upward Albian-age sequences observed in the northern (A1) and southern section (A2) (Figs. The seismic facies of the Maastrichtian/Campanian sequence unit exhibits sub-parallel (SF5) low–medium–high-amplitude clinoform configurations in the northern, central and southern parts, respectively (Fig. The shale deposits are linked to the anoxicity that prevailed during the Aptian marine transgression (Jungslager 1999). A similar interpretation was made from the gamma-ray log in the southern part which suggests that the sand deposit may be of turbiditic origin, evidenced by the fining upward sequence of sand into silt around a depth of 900 m (Fig. This training course will feature: The history of sequence stratigraphy The Turonian sequence (SQ3) was initiated by a marine transgression, followed by a short-span regression, which led to the deposition of localised marine shale and a high accumulation of sediments, respectively (Dingle et al. How to Understand the Earth. 11a). Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Capetown, South Africa, Chris Adesola Samakinde & Jan Marinus Van Bever Donker, School of Geosciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Chris Adesola Samakinde, Ray Durrheim & Musa Manzi, You can also search for this author in On the left are the conceptual representations of the seismic facies. 4). The tangential-oblique reflection configuration represents a prodelta shallow slope deposit, which typically contains a terrigenous mix of sand, silt and clay (Badley 1985). The TWT for the entire sequence ranges between 1.3 and 1.8 s (Fig. Henry W. Posamentier discusses the application of 3-D seismic stratigraphic analyses to the mitigation of risk associated with lithology prediction prior to drilling – workflows and techniques. 10a–c). All concepts are illustrated with field examples of seismic and well-log data, including more than 150 referenced publications. Part of Springer Nature. Successful exploration for oil in mature basins can be enhanced by using detailed geologic models coupled with seismic stratigraphy. 4). Figure modified from (c) A map showing wells A1 and A2, the 2D seismic lines (L1, L2) and a 3D inline (L3) used for this study. The calibrated gamma-ray log displays a ‘saw teeth’-like serration, which indicates the influence of waves and storms, a phenomenon common on the shelf (Fig. Seven depositional sequences were mapped followed by the creation of lithofacies log interpreted from the gamma-ray log (GR) by setting maximum GR value at 60 API for Sandstone, 60–100 API for Siltstone and above 100 API for Shale. 1), when a narrow western margin of South Africa was formed when regional rifting, accompanied by volcanism caused the drifting apart of the African and South American plates (Gladczenko et al. A (North), B (Central) and C (South). Two 2D seismic lines (L1, L2) and an inline (L3) shot in the NE–SW, NW–SE and ESE-WSW directions, respectively, were used in this study (Fig. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. a–c The Cenomanian seismic facies configurations and calibrated gamma-ray log with the lithology interpretations at well positions along the N-S profile. This suggests shelfal deposition and an indication of sediments deposited on a uniformly subsiding shelf. Application of Seismic Stratigraphy, Multi-attribute Analysis and Neural Networks to Mitigate Risk in New Exploration Frontiers – West Newfoundland Example Valentina Baranova*, Azer Mustaqeem Petro-Explorers Inc., Calgary, Canada [email protected] and Friso Brouwer dGB Earth Sciences, Houston, TX Summary The study covers a 3D data set from the western Newfoundland in Parsons Pond area. The reader is taken from a basic level to more advanced study techniques. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The channels within the SQ1 are likely to be palaeo-channels of the Orange river because the discharge outlet is suggested to have switched northwards to the current study area due to a topographic barrier to the South during the Cenozoic era (Dingle and Hendley 1984). The occurrence of SF1 and SF4 facies within the Cenozoic sequence indicates terrigenous pro-deltaic deposits and mass transport deposits, respectively. 6a). Seismic Stratigraphy enables the petroleum geoscientist to understand the geological record through the interpretation of seismic lines (2-D and 3-D), cores, and well logs. Widely used technique by the petroleum industry, the primary … The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. 3). RJD acknowledges the support of the Department of Science and Innovation through the South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI). 2010). 1977; Vail 1987; Cross and Lessenger 1988; Catuneanu 2006). 4). Pub. A laterally extensive sandstone reservoir of Albian age at 2 s TWT and trace 2813 is observed on L2, the geometry as observed here suggests a channel sandstone of Albian age that extends from the Central part towards the South (Fig. B. This is coupled with the serration of the log as observed around 400 m, indicating a storm and wave-dominated shelf environment (Fig. This sequence appears to have been deposited as an incised-valley fill in the study area. 7b). Consequently, potential hydrocarbon reservoirs can be explored for drilling campaigns and sampling of cores for reservoir quality analysis and prediction. 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